The relationship has deepened gradually over time, though, as Alan Dowty puts it, it was "not a simple linear process of growing cooperation, but rather a series of tendentious bargaining situations with different strategic and political components in each."
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During the first twenty years of
During the early 1960s, the
During the Yom Kippur War in 1973, the
Bilateral military cooperation deepened under the Ronald Reagan administration in the 1980s. In 1981, US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and Israeli Minister of Defense Ariel Sharon signed the Strategic Cooperation Agreement, establishing a framework for continued consultation and cooperation to enhance the national security of both countries. In November 1983, the two sides formed a Joint Political Military Group, which still meets twice a year, to implement most provisions of the MOU. Joint air and sea military exercises began in June 1984, and the
In 1987, the
In an effort to prevent Israel from retaliating against Iraqi SS-1 Scud missile attacks during the Persian Gulf war of 1991, and thereby breaking up the US-Arab coalition, the US dispatched MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile batteries to Israel. The effort met with very limited success, with less than 10% and perhaps as few as none of the Scuds fired against
Under the Bill Clinton administration in the 1990s, the
Further extensive military cooperation took place under the George W. Bush administration, with
Joint military activity
The close military relationship between the
Israeli use of U.S.-provided military equipment in the 1982 Lebanon War resulted in controversy, exposing serious differences between Israeli and U.S. policies. Similar controversies attended Israel's use of weapons supplied by the U.S. in the course of the Palestinian First Intifada and al-Aqsa Intifada as well as the 2006 Lebanon War.
A bilateral memorandum of understanding was signed in January 2001, at the end of the
In 2007, the
Significant major procurements